Is Allah a Just God?
According to Islam, Allah is a god of justice. Many of the ninety-nine names of Allah imply justice as one of Allah’s attributes. Geisler and Saleeb, in their book Answering Islam, point to the following names:
Al-Jalil, the Majestic, mighty and majestic is he; Al-Jami, the Gatherer, who gathers all men to an appointed day; Al-Hasib, the Accounter, who is sufficient as a reckoner; Al-Hakim, the Judge who gives judgment among his servants; Al-Adl, the Just, whose word is perfect in heaven and on earth ascribe holiness; Al-Muqsit, the Observer of Justice who will set up balances with justice; Al-Muntaqim, the Avenger who wreaks vengeance on sinners and succors the believers.
Judgment: The Scales
On the day of judgment, Islam teaches that all mankind will be judged according to the works each has accomplished. Upon a set of scales one's deeds, good and bad, will be placed on opposite sides. If the balance of deeds favors good works, one's eternal destiny in paradise is likely, though the final decision is with Allah alone. But if the balance of deeds favors evil or bad deeds, eternity in hell is guaranteed.
Sura 7:8. And the weighing on that day (Day of Resurrection) will be the true (weighing). So as for those whose scale (of good deeds) will be heavy, they will be the successful (by entering Paradise). . And as for those whose scale will be light, they are those who will lose their ownselves (by entering Hell) because they denied and rejected Our Ayât (proofs, evidences, verses, lessons, signs, revelations, etc.).
Sura 21:47. And We shall set up balances of justice on the Day of Resurrection, then none will be dealt with unjustly in anything. And if there be the weight of a mustard seed, We will bring it. And Sufficient are We as Reckoners.
Sura 23:102. Then, those whose scales (of good deeds) are heavy, - these, they are the successful. 103. And those whose scales (of good deeds) are light, they are those who lose their ownselves, in Hell will they abide. 104. The Fire will burn their faces, and therein they will grin, with displaced lips (disfigured).
Sura 101:6. Then as for him whose balance (of good deeds) will be heavy, 7. He will live a pleasant life (in Paradise). 8. But as for him whose balance (of good deeds) will be light, 9. He will have his home in Hawiyah (pit, i.e. Hell).
Allah: The Controller of Everything
Islam also teaches that everything that occurs on earth is by the will of Allah – everything! Allah is responsible for both good and evil in the world. Allah is responsible for leading some people in the path of righteousness and for leading others astray. Consider these verses from the Qur’an.
Sura 4:119. Verily, I will mislead them, and surely, I will arouse in them false desires
Sura 18:17 He whom Allâh guides, is rightly guided; but he whom He sends astray, for him you will find no Walî (guiding friend) to lead him (to the right Path).
Sura 14: 4. And We sent not a Messenger except with the language of his people, in order that he might make (the Message) clear for them. Then Allâh misleads whom He wills and guides whom He wills. And He is the All-Mighty, the All-Wise.
Herein is one of the many internal inconsistencies within Islamic theology, and an example why Allah cannot be a god of justice. If mankind will be judged based on the balance of good versus bad deeds committed, and if Allah is a god who causes mankind to commit evil or lead mankind astray, how then can he punish mankind for the sins he causes them to commit? How is this justice?